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When you can taste the hazelnut, it tastes amazing and makes it worse because you realize how good it could have been without the peanuts.
I hate to tell you how good these Snickers Hazelnut Bars are. Hazelnuts are just about my favorite kind of nuts - well, it's battle between them and pistachios.
I would not turn down either kind. Anyway, my attention was directed towards these goodies. They are a smaller size than a regular Snickers Bar with enough good stuff to satisfy your sweet tooth and not so many calories that you feel guilty, well, at least not too guilty.
They are covered in milk chocolate and have a caramel layer as well as some nougat and tucked inside are a combo of hazelnuts and peanuts. So they have lots of nuts and you go nuts because they are so good.
As you can tell, I like them and so will you. Give them a try - you won't be disappointed. Also a nod to Amazon for the packing which was in a cooler lining with a freeze pack to prevent the bars from melting in the warmer weather.
What is not good about a snickers. These are really good the hazelnut had a really great taste to it I think I like them a little better than a regular sneakers.
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If you like hazelnuts give them a try. The nuts do have a unique flavour that not everyone will care for however. The hazelnut in these is delicious.
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Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. Get to Know Us. English Choose a language for shopping. Singles Size Bar Product Dimensions: Next we examined meta-analytic maps to see whether information about the sensory context of an affective experience was routinely and reliably encoded by the brain.
We first examined meta-analytic maps to see whether activity in early visual cortex was greater during affective visual stimuli, activity in early auditory cortex was greater during affective auditory stimuli, etc.
These meta-analytic maps provide an estimate of reliability by taking an overall summary across individual studies. To examine whether activity in sensory brain regions was reliable on the individual study level, we used a multivariate analysis to test whether individual study patterns could be classified on the basis of their sensory context.
The latter implement a non-generative, univariate model that combines activations across all studies into a single statistical summary map. In comparison, the BSPP is a generative, multivariate model.
As a generative model, it provides predictions for the number of location of activation points for studies using, for example, olfactory-driven affect inductions.
And it provides information about how reliable these activations are on the individual study level. That is, we examined whether the peak activation patterns observed in individual studies are reliable enough to indicate the sensory context of the evoked affective experience.
We updated an existing manually coded database of neuroimaging studies of emotion. The prior database Phan et al. Our emotion database initially included non-painful affect inducing stimuli delivered through touch e.
Hence we further appended this database with studies involving painful touch vs. Study contrasts from neuroimaging experiments examining affect and emotion were included if they recruited adult healthy participants no clinical samples or samples involving children were included , measured blood flow using neuroimaging with fMRI or PET technologies, and reported activations using standardized Talairach space Talairach and Tournoux, or Montreal Neurological Institute and International Consortium for Brain Mapping Mazziotta et al.
Our database did not include study contrasts that assessed learning or memory e. It would be trivial to show that affective stimuli engage early sensory brain regions relative to fixation.
We therefore only included coordinates from studies that used a neutral baseline involving a similar category of stimulus e.
We included contrasts involving a variety of task instructions i. Mixed-modality and cross-modality study contrasts were excluded. Study contrasts were also excluded if the baseline was fixation or rest or used a different class of stimuli e.
It is possible that region of interest ROI analyses in individual studies may bias the results. For example, researchers examining affect with visual or auditory stimuli may include portions of occipital or temporal cortex, respectively, as ROIs.
To address this, points from each study contrast were coded for whether they were observed in a whole brain analysis or from an ROI analysis.
Of the included study contrast maps, the few ROI points within a map tended to be placed in the amygdala, anterior hippocampus, cingulate cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and brain stem.
They were not located in early sensory regions that were the focus of this analysis. For the visual modality, meta-analytic contrast maps were calculated for facial expression stimuli versus neutral facial expressions and for affective natural scene pictures versus neutral scene pictures separately.
This was because there were substantially more visual modality contrasts than contrasts in other modalities, because a prior meta-analysis has found differences between these two classes of visually driven affect inductions Sabatinelli et al.
In that sense, affective faces may provide a better test of our hypothesis rather than being confounded by visual complexity.
We thus performed analyses using both types of visual contrasts, but used the faces when comparing across stimulus modalities for the MKDA comparisons.
For the auditory modality, study contrasts were included if they involved affective music, vocal expressions e. For the olfactory and gustatory modalities, study contrasts were included if they involved comparing pleasant or unpleasant odors or tastes to neutral odor or taste baselines.
For the somatosensory modality, studies were included if they compared pleasant or unpleasant touch vs. A reference list of included studies is provided in Supplementary Data Sheet S1.
Additional characteristics about the study contrast maps separated by stimulus modality is provided in Supplementary Table S1.
The study contrast maps were submitted to a Multi-level Kernel Density Analysis, as described in detail in previous studies Kober et al.
Brett Brett et al. This approach uses the study contrast as the level of analysis and nests coordinates within each study contrast.
Other approaches have used the number of coordinates as the unit of analysis. However, this approach can be unduly influenced by study contrasts that report multiple coordinates within the same area, thus making it appear as though an area is frequently engaged even though the coordinates may stem from a single study contrast.
Coordinates within each study contrast were convolved with a 12 mm sphere. We then computed for each voxel a point estimate of the probability of study contrasts that activated the voxel.
Study contrasts were weighted by the square root of the sample size to help account for differences in statistical power. The proportion of study contrasts that activated a voxel was treated as a random effect.
To determine significance, for each comparison a Monte Carlo simulation 5, iterations was performed that preserved the number of contrasts and coordinates within contrasts but randomly assigned the coordinate locations to gray matter regions of the brain.
To examine which regions showed activation during affect inductions across multiple modalities, we applied the FWER threshold to each modality map individually and then examined their intersection as recommended by Nichols et al.
For this analysis, we only included the visual faces MKDA since the stimulus features are better controlled for and our findings by and large show considerable overlap between faces and natural scene images and including both would lead to redundancies for visually driven affect inductions.
We thresholded the remaining map using the initial pre-masking, whole-brain FWER thresholds, which is a conservative test of our hypotheses.
MKDA maps for each modality are available by request or by download at: We further tested the reliability of individual studies by assessing whether the sensory context could be deduced from the pattern of activation alone.
The neural activations across studies with different modalities were modeled as multiple independent realizations of a multi-type point process.
Activation peaks are treated as a random variable, allowing for identifying a locus around which points across study contrast maps cluster together, and to estimate the variability of points around this locus.
We assigned a uniform distribution with wide range [0,60] to the number of activation centers for each condition. The classifier is, in turn, constructed from the posterior predictive probability of the modality for a study contrast that was not included in the training set.
For validation, we adopted a previous sampling technique Vehtari and Lampinen, to compute the level-one-out cross validation accuracy.
We checked the convergence of the Markov chain by running five different chains with random initial values and computing the potential scale reduction factors for the profile of log-likelihood for the model i.
A value of 1. See Kang et al. The BSPP has at least three advantages compared with other methods.
First, it is an explicit spatial point process model that better captures the spatial structure of neural activations. This approach jointly characterizes randomness of the number and locations of neural activations, while most other methods do not.
Second, the hierarchical spatial model is a more accurate representation of the true data generating mechanism. And third, the fully Bayesian model captures more sources of variation, and appropriately conveys the certainty or lack there of in the computation of the predictive probabilities that determine the classification outcome.
To see which brain regions were engaged by multiple stimulus modalities, we used a conjunction analysis which examined the overlap of individually thresholded maps Nichols et al.
Some stimulus modalities also showed some degree of preferential engagement of these regions. Olfactory driven affect inductions contributed to greater activity in the right amygdala, but not in the left hemisphere clusters regardless of the cluster-level threshold.
Gustatory and somatosensory driven affect inductions did not reliably engage the amygdala, even upon relaxing the cluster-level threshold.
Early sensory input regions are routinely engaged during affective stimuli relative to neutral baseline stimuli.
Despite selecting for within-study comparisons involving matched neutral baseline stimuli of the same modality, activation is frequently observed in early sensory regions of the corresponding modality.
This includes activity in striate and extrastriate cortex during visual inductions top two rows , posterior superior temporal cortex during auditory inductions, piriform cortex during olfactory inductions, dorsal mid-insula during gustatory inductions, and post-central gyrus during somatosensory inductions.
Neural regions frequently engaged during affect inductions across multiple sensory input modalities. Illustrated in the figure are neural regions responding during affective inductions across multiple modalities i.
A Superimposes each modality: V, visual faces; A, auditory; O, olfactory; G, gustatory; S, somatosenory.
B Illustrates overlaps from the conjunction analysis. Visual natural scene image contrasts were excluded from the analysis for balance across modalities and because visual faces are more likely to be better controlled for visual complexity relative to the neutral baseline.
Reducing the threshold by removing the cluster extent showed that auditory inductions also overlapped with superior portions of the dorsal anterior cingulate engaged during visual and somatosensory inductions, and with the right amygdala, however, other findings remained as depicted in the figure.
Images slices from top left running clockwise are taken at: Next, we examined whether sensory cortical areas were also frequently active during affect inductions.
MKDA maps during affect stimuli presented through each sensory modality relative to within-modality neutral control stimuli showed reliable activity in early sensory cortical brain regions.
In general, these results indicate that cortical regions receiving early stage inputs from sensory modalities are also frequently active during affective inputs.
We further tested whether affect inductions presented through a particular modality showed greater activity in associated sensory cortical areas relative to affect inductions occurring through other modalities.
For auditory driven affect, activation was found bilaterally in the superior and middle temporal gyri. Tests for olfactory and gustatory modalities were limited in part because early sensory regions for olfaction are directly adjacent to the amygdala i.
In summary, the results indicate that sensory regions in occipital, temporal, and lateral somatosensory cortex were more frequently active particularly during visually, auditory, and somatosensory driven affect inductions, respectively.
Selective activation in sensory cortical regions during visually driven, auditory driven, and somatosensory driven affective experiences.
The figure illustrates brain regions showing selectively more likely activity during affect induced through visual, auditory, or somatosensory modalities using a max criterion analysis.
In lighter and darker blue largely overlapping are brain regions shown more frequent activation during affective inductions using visual faces images vs.
Yellow and brown highlight brain areas showing the corresponding analysis but for auditory or somatosensory stimuli. To test whether the activation maps are individually reliable beyond the overall summary, and relatedly, whether the pattern of brain activation in a given study can diagnose the sensory context of an affective experience, we submitted the individual study contrast maps to a classification analysis.
Specifically, we used a BSPP model, which is a generative model that also provides expectations of where activations would likely fall, and also takes into account the joint probability of activations in multiple regions Kang et al.
All analyses were performed on contrast maps that compared affective stimuli with neutral control stimuli matched for sensory information e.
Classification of the six stimulus categories, including visual categories for faces and pictures separately c.
Brain activity diagnoses the sensory context of affective experience. Confusion matrices are shown with category predicted by the Bayesian Spatial Point Process BSPP model along the rows and the actual category along the columns.
Classification accuracies were higher for some stimulus modalities e. Also, misclassifications were rare from a given modality to auditory, olfactory, or gustatory modalities, but slightly higher to visual modalities.
The BSPP model, being a generative rather than discriminative classifier, takes into account the base rates of activation in each modality, and the quality of information is influenced by the number of studies.
To test this, we performed the same analysis using a subset of 20 randomly selected visual face contrast maps to even out the number of contrast maps, which drastically mitigated the bias Supplementary Image S1.
We also performed the model again this time excluding visual contrasts given their overabundance. Classification of the remaining four stimulus modalities was slightly higher at These findings indicate that classification accuracy was not driven solely by the visual modality.
As an additional analysis, we also examined classification analysis comparing affective driven by visual faces and visual natural scene images. Reliable separation was observed at Overall, findings from the BSPP models provide stronger evidence of reliability across individual studies, and indicate that the pattern of brain activity provides information to diagnose the sensory context of an affective experience.
The amygdala, anterior insula, and orbitofrontal cortex responded during affective stimuli across two or more stimulus modalities.
Portions of the occipital, temporal, and post-central gyrus were more frequently engaged during visual, auditory, and somatosensory affective experiences, respectively.
Activity in piriform cortex and mid-insular cortex was also observed during olfactory and gustatory driven affective responses, respectively, although the fewer contrasts and proximity to heteromodal areas makes it unclear whether these regions respond specifically to within-modality affect inductions.
Using a classifier, we also found that the pattern of neural activity provides information about whether the current affective experience is driven by a sight, smell, or touch, etc.
We observed an average classification rate of These levels are in the same range as prior classification studies on individual participants or cross-participants e.
Taken together, our findings provide both univariate and multivariate support for notion that neural activity separates affective episodes apart along the lines of their sensory qualities.
Limbic and paralimbic regions of the brain Papez, ; Maclean, ; Damasio, are frequently engaged across a large variety of affective experiences including various discrete emotions and both positive and negative affective valence Barrett and Bliss-Moreau, ; Wilson-Mendenhall et al.
Our findings extend the generality of these regions by observing that they also respond across diverse exteroceptive and also interoceptive inputs.
Both of these regions share reciprocal connections with the amygdala Morecraft et al. The neuroanatomical connections of this network suggests that it may function to integrate sensory information and contextual information from association cortex with somatovisceral representations of the body Damasio, ; Öngür and Price, ; Craig, that may underlie core affect Barrett and Bliss-Moreau, Notably, not all of these limbic and paralimbic regions were reliably engaged across the five sensory affect inductions we examined.
In contrast, there were fewer contrasts in other modalities, and activity associated with these induction modalities was less consistent across those clusters.
But on the other hand, these findings do coincide with other observations on olfaction, gustation, and somatosensation.
Previous studies have also noted laterality related to processing affective olfactory inputs, although the properties guiding hemispheric specialization for olfaction have nonetheless been difficult to characterize Brand et al.
This greatly increases a participants interest in the game show. This feature of the invention also greatly increases the chance that a participant will employ his coupon, as by visiting the store of an advertiser to redeem his coupon.
A further advantage of this feature of the invention is that it can be implemented using the electronic communication systems employed in various embodiments of the invention, including the use of a central station to broadcast program material with its set of instructional signals and directives on the imprinting of a coupon.
Furthermore, this can be employed using the electronic systems of the embodiments of the invention wherein the program and the instructional signals are prerecorded.
This includes the prerecorded format in which recording apparatus may be located, for example, in an aircraft, or may be employed with participants in the home interconnected with a central station by means of a telephone network.
In terms of utilization of the foregoing electronic equipment, questions, instructions, and coupon imprinting directives are transmitted from the central station to the remote stations in a plurality of categories of interest.
These categories of interest are presented by the host in the communication transmitted from the central station. For example, in the case of a televised program, the categories of interest may be presented directly on the television screen.
In cases wherein the program is transmitted by an audio channel only, then the categories of interest would be listed audibly by the host.
The participants at the remote station by use of his response unit, presses a key on the keyboard indicating his selection of a desired category or area of interest.
Thereupon, the response unit is responsive only to those questions, instructions, and coupon printing directives pertaining to the selected category of interest, and ignores the remaining questions, instructions, and coupon-printing directives as being irrelevant to the operation of the response unit.
This is implemented readily by transmitting to the remote response unit, to be stored in a memory therein, the set of acceptable responses and the accompanying scoring criteria and advertising information for each area of interest.
Then a respondent need only signal the response unit as to his desired area of interest, the signal serving to address the corresponding region of the memory.
The response unit then operates with the data for the desired area of interest. Normally, broadcast contests presently conducted are sponsored by manufacturers or retailers of products.
Successful respondents may receive prize coupons entitling them to a discount on merchandise promoted by a sponsor. However, winners often receive coupons carrying a discount on merchandise they do not intend to purchase at the time they receive such a coupon.
Discount coupons tied in this manner to an unwanted product will not be redeemed and are useless to both the public and the sponsor.
The disclosed system and methodology provide for a dispensing of coupons to members of a broadcast audience for redemption, and enable members of the audience who have acceptably responded to a task presented in a broadcast to win a prize coupon carrying a discount deductible from the price of a product selected by such a member for purchase.
Local sponsors thereby may promote the sale of products. This is accomplished in accordance with a further aspect of the invention in which the aforementioned equipment can be employed for conducting a lottery game in a fashion which is resistant to forgery.
In accordance with the invention, there is provided a central data storage facility in which all player responses and, when desired, the winning response s are stored.
Player entries can be authenticated electronically prior to storage at the central facility, and are transmitted either electronically as by two-way cable, or by modem over a telephone line from remote sites of players to the central facility.
Authentication is accomplished by comparing numbers or names assigned to players, including serial numbers of player entry devices, with reference data previously stored in the central facility.
Further authentication is provided by storing at the central facility data, such as the players response and the winning number s , which appears also on the coupon presented for redemption.
At a redemption center, an electronic communication link with the central facility permits instant comparison of the two sets of data to verify the authenticity of the coupon and prevent fraud.
The central facility may be connected to the remote stations and to a credit agency by means of a telephone network which permits verification of a players line of credit, and a charging of lottery fees against a preestablished credit limit.
The aforementioned aspects and other features of the invention are described in the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein:.
In the following description, FIGS. In the disclosure of FIGS. The criteria are controllable from a central station. A level of difficulty in the questions may be selected by a contestant.
The embodiment of the system of FIGS. The system of FIGS. The systems of the various embodiments will now be described primarily in the context of responses to tasks and questions; it being understood that the practice of the invention is applicable to the making, evaluation and rewarding of predictions.
Methods and systems employed in the context of predictions of the outcome of events are more particularly described in connection with FIGS. In accordance with the invention, each of the receiving stations 16 and 18 includes means for observing the broadcast program, such as a television screen 20, and means by which persons in the external viewing audience can respond to situations presented in the studio, the response means being a response unit 22 which evaluates and records responses entered by persons in the viewing audience.
Two signals are broadcast by the central station 12 to each of the receiving stations 16 and One of these two signals is a program signal for presenting on the television screen 20 a program generated in the studio The second of the two signals is an instructional or command signal for operation of the response unit 22, the instructional signal providing appropriate commands to the response unit 22 for evaluating, rejecting or accepting, and scoring audience responses to questions raised in the televised program.
Two modes of transmission are provided for the two signals. In the case of the receiving station 18, both of the signals are carried by a single television channel carrier radiated from an antenna 24 of the central station 22, and received by an antenna 26 at the receiving station The antenna 26 connects with a television system 28 which includes the foregoing television screen 20 and, furthermore, includes circuitry 30 for the separation of the instructional signal from the program signal.
The instructional signal is then applied via line 32 to the response unit In the case of the receiving station 16, the two signals are processed separately.
The instructional signal is broadcast by a radio channel employing a radio antenna 34 at the central station 12, and received by an antenna 36 at the receiving station Thus, at the receiving station 16, a standard television set 38 including the screen 20 receives the televised program via antenna 26 and presents the program on the screen A separate radio receiver 40 and demodulator 42 are employed for receiving the instructional signal and for applying the instructional signal to the response unit In the practice of the invention, the instructional signal may be transmitted to a remote receiving station in any convenient manner such as via a cable transmission or by a specially broadcast transmission not shown or by combining the instructional signal with the audio signal in a radio broadcast or television broadcast.
The combination of the instructional signal with the audio spectrum is demonstrated in the graph of FIG. In that spectrum, a relatively narrow frequency band is set aside for transmission of the instructional signal, the narrow frequency band being at the upper frequency edge of the audio spectrum.
By maintaining the amplitude of the instructional signal well below that of the audio signal, the instructional signal does not introduce more than a negligible amount of interference with the audio signal.
Also, it is noted that the instructional signal is not continuously present but, rather, appears only for a momentary burst of time, typically less than a few seconds duration, when necessary to instruct each response unit In the case of the receiving station 16, a simulcast of radio and television is employed while, in the case of the receiving station 18, only the television program is broadcast, as has been described above.
However, in both cases, the audio spectrum is the same, and the mode of combining the instructional signal with the audio transmission is the same.
Typically, the system 10 would be implemented with only one of the transmissions, either the television transmission with the instructional signal combined therewith, as demonstrated by the receiving station 18, or by the simulcast of both the television and the radio transmissions as demonstrated by the receiving station In the case of the simulcast, the instructional signal need not be combined with the television signal, the instructional signal appearing only in the radio broadcast from the antenna 34 as described above.
The receiver 40 and the demodulator 42 operate in a manner similar to that of the separation circuitry 30, and will be described in detail hereinafter, with reference to FIG.
In both of the receiving stations 16 and 18, the response unit 22 includes a keyboard 44 whereby a person in the remote viewing audience enters a response.
Alternatively, by way of example, the dispenser 46 may be constructed in a form not shown f or outputting a tape which has been imprinted or punched with the desired information.
Easily recognizable indicia may also be imprinted on the tape or card. For example, a school may mail to students forms specially prepared for a particular examination or assignment.
The response unit 22 may therefore be configured to hold a recording medium such as a paper blank to which markings are applied. Alternatively, the medium, such as paper tape, discontinuous or continuous forms, may be inserted by the respondents.
Examination papers, whether taking the shape of forms to be filled in, or the result of a free hand composition or narrative, may also be graded by the comparator means, which is capable of identifying key phrases and words that are expected to appear on the completed examination paper.
In similar fashion, comparator means to be described hereinafter is designed so as to be able to recognize and accept any one or more of a plurality of predetermined key words, symbols or phrases.
Dispenser 46 can be adapted to reward children who have provided answers meeting the predetermined response criteria by dispensing gold stars or other tokens.
In another embodiment, the dispenser combines the coupons issued to winners with advertising material or shopping hints.
The records created pursuant to the present invention may be used as tokens, coupons, certificates and general proof of participation in the broadcast transmission program.
Coupons may be redeemed by mail or in retail establishments for cash, prizes or discounts. The term "quiz program" relates to one or more questions or interrogatories constituting an entire program, and also includes the insertion of a question into other material, such as a cinematic film presentation.
The term "task-setting" is intended to include the meaning of interrogative, opinion-eliciting, prediction-eliciting and statement-eliciting, as well as the soliciting of creative endeavors and all kinds of functions capable of being performed by an entry in a data entering device.
The term "comparing" relates to one or more possible established responses which may be established prior to or subsequent to a contestant's response the previously known color of a golf ball, or during a game, a prediction of how close the ball will come to the hole , and a comparing of an actual response to an established response to determine if an actual response is acceptable.
An acceptable response may be based on one or more words or phrase or alphanumeric symbol or selection of designated objects, by way of example.
The terms "evaluating" and "scoring" are intended to refer to and include the meanings of sorting, counting, screening, evaluating, analyzing and processing information, data and responses in accordance with predetermined criteria, ranging from simple comparing tasks to computerized processing and analyses.
The term "interactive system" refers to a system for communicating from a sender to a respondent and having the capacity for allowing the sender to receive a communication, when desired, from the respondent whether by manual or electronic means.
The term "response" is intended to include answers, elicited opinions, predictions and statements, text and narrative provided by contestants, respondents, students and other participants in broadcasts calling for interaction, reaction and responses.
The term "response criteria" is intended to refer to descriptive words, key words, key phrases, parameters, equations, formulas, symbols and definiens describing or defining responses that have been determined by the producer of a program to be acceptable in the context of a task so as to qualify for a reward.
The terms "outcome criteria" and "success criteria" are intended to include alphanumeric symbols and data by which the outcome of an event can be described, measured or identified, such as key and descriptive words, coordinates, grid, pinpointed and other locations, pictorial, diagrammatic and graphic presentations, results, scores, counts, records, distances, rates and other measurements.
The term "processed response" is intended to refer to and include the results produced by screening, sorting, scoring, evaluating, massaging, statistically analyzing, or otherwise machine-processing responses, data and information provided by participants at the receiving stations.
The term "hard copy" is intended to refer to and include any kind of permanent record capable of being visually read, scanned or machine read.
The term "matrix" may be used to refer to the source or origin f rom which something originates, takes form or develops, such as a cellulosic or plastic strip capable of being provided with printed markings or magnetic recordings so as to create a hard copy record.
The term "simulcast" is intended to refer to the simultaneous, but separate transmission from different propagating sources of the video and audio portions of a program.
In the context of formulating response criteria, the terms "formulate", "generate", "format" and "reformat" are intended to refer to and include the selection and determination of all factors affecting the evaluation and scoring of responses.
In the case of a task requiring a prediction of the outcome of an event which has not yet occurred or been completed, such as the completion of a forward pass in a football game, or winning a hand at a card game such as bridge, the response criteria may be referred to as outcome criteria.
The outcome criteria is to be transmitted to contestants at remote stations at a time after the prediction has been made. In the context of transmitting response criteria, for example, on an audio frequency, the use of the term "encoding" is intended to include various forms of signal coding as well as a transmission of signals at an increased speed which would render the signals unintelligible to the human ear.
The term "encoding", as used by way of example for transmitting response criteria, is intended to include other modes of communication such as various forms of color signal coding and transmission of signals to television stations capable of being read by sensors of devices for receiving signals outside the audible frequency range.
The transmission of encoded information, whether within the audio spectrum or within the visual spectrum, is to be accomplished preferably in a fashion which is essentially unnoticed by a contestant and cannot be perceived as conveying information.
In this sense, the encoding is perceptually unintelligible. The term "keypad" is understood to include other forms of data entry devices, the keyboard being presented by way of example.
The term "print-out" is intended to include printed, embossed, punched, stamped, and other types of hard copy, paper, cardboard and plastic in the form of coupons, certificates, tokens, cards, forms and matrices.
The printing of the print-out includes the foregoing forms of marking including the creation of three-dimensional configurations.
The term "central" as used, for example, in "central location" is intended to refer to a broadcast station or network serving a country, a time zone or a region, and also is intended to include discrete local broadcast stations operating independently and serving a town or other smaller geographic area, always provided that such "central" station serves a multiplicity of remote receiving stations.
The terms "remote" or "external" as used for example in "external audience", are intended to include all television viewers and radio listeners tuned into an electronic transmission station, irrespective of the distance from such central station; as such, a "remote" audience includes, for example, students or other respondents positioned in close proximity to the source of a program, as in the case of a closed circuit transmission.
The terms "code", "encoding", and "encryption" are intended to include alphanumeric codes, color codes, bar codes and symbols, including those readable, recognizable or conveyable by humans and machines.
The terms "acceptable response" or "acceptable answer" are intended to include all answers to a question, which answers meet or exceed a minimum standard or degree of accuracy, comprehensiveness or responsiveness; such "acceptable answers" specifically including partially correct answers.
Similarly "acceptable predictions" are intended to include predictions falling within predetermined parameters or meeting standards determined by the operator of an event following its occurrence.
Answers and predictions may be defined as "acceptable" irrespective of a level of difficulty or a scoring mode. The term "commercial message" as used herein includes sponsored, paid-for and other messages intended for commercial purposes.
The term "user" of a recording medium as used herein includes viewers, listeners, and buyers of a recording medium such as video tapes, and the target audience intended to be reached by the commercial message.
The term "intelligible" is intended to mean intelligible to a human without machine intervention, for example, without decoding, demodulation, change of transmission or receiving speed, or other manipulations to make a signal intelligible to humans.
The term "intelligible" includes material and forms of expression which can be seen or heard such as written material or speech.
The term "unintelligible", as applied to various signals which may be transmitted by equipment employed in the practice of the invention, is intended to include signals which can be made intelligible only be machine intervention.
The terms "multipart task" or "multipart question" are intended to include any situations, such as questions, tasks and puzzles, in which a contestant is required to provide chronologically spaced responses related to a common question, task, puzzle, or subject matter requiring an action by the contestant.
Such a task may include so-called umbrella or omnibus questions comprising sub-groups, contingent questions e. The term "reward" is intended to include in its scope discounts, prizes, free merchandise, monetary awards and other rewards having monetary or symbolic value.
A "sweepstakes award" may be a special award of extra value beyond the value of a typical award. The term "host" is intended to include an on-stage and an of f-stage announcer, master of ceremonies, program director, operator, guest host and celebrities, announcers of commercials and any other individual associated with the program or appointed to carry out one or more of the activities enumerated herein.
It also is intended to include the individuals engaged in the operation of formulating a message or program for broadcasting on behalf of an advertiser, manufacturer, store or sponsor.
The term "difficulty level" is intended to include difficulty levels set by the host and inherent in the task or question, as reflected by possible answers, as well as difficulty levels inherent in a response or answer set by a respondent based on the speed, accuracy, comprehensiveness or responsiveness of the response and reflecting respondent's confidence in his or her knowledge of the subject matter.
Similarly, a "difficulty level" may apply to the outcome of an event, as reflected by possible predictions. In the formulation of a response to a question by a member of the external television audience, in the ensuing description reference will be made to a response in terms of recognition of key words as well as responses which require several words as in a phrase, sentence, formula and the like.
It is to be understood that, in the generation of such responses, the term "word" includes also alphanumeric characters and other symbols such as pictorial representations which may be required as a proper response to a question.
With respect to various embodiments of the invention, the response unit 22 may be configured to provide the foregoing functions of evaluating and scoring, as well as the processed response.
Words spoken by the host 50, as well as other sounds in the studio 14, are converted by a microphone 56 to electric signals.
Also included within the studio 14 is a keyboard 58 by which the host 50 or another person, may enter commands and instructions to be communicated via the instructional signal.
The central station 12 further comprises an encoder 60 a modulator 62, an oscillator 64, a band-pass filter 66, a summer 68, a combiner 70, a radio transmitter 72, a television transmitter 74, and a switch The switch 76 connects an input terminal of the combiner 70 to either an output terminal of the summer 68 on line 78 or an output terminal of the microphone 56 on line The instructional signals may be prerecorded and then propagated from a central transmission station to remote locations.
In such a case, the host uses the keyboard or other such device to initiate the transmission of the instructional signal message. In operation, the pressing of keys on the keyboard 58 activates the encoder 60 to output digital signals representing the keys which have been pressed.
The oscillator 64 outputs a carrier signal which is modulated by the modulator 62 with the digital signals outputted by the encoder The modulator 62 applies the modulated carrier signal to the filter 66 which narrows the bandwidth of the modulated signal to equal the instructional bandwidth shown in FIG.
The filtered signal is coupled from the filter 66 to one input terminal of the summer 68, a second input terminal of the summer 68 receiving the output electrical signal from the microphone 56 via line An output signal of the camera 54 is connected to one input terminal of the combiner 70, either directly or via a video mixing unit to be described with reference to FIG.
To facilitate the explanation of this embodiment of the invention, it is presumed now that the camera 54 is connected directly to the combiner A second input terminal of the combiner 70 is connectable via the switch 76 in line 78 to an output terminal of the simmer In the alternative position of the switch 76, the second input terminal of the combiner 70 is connected via line 80 to receive the output electric signal of the microphone 56 rather than the output signal of the summer An output terminal of the combiner 70 is connected to the television transmitter Signals outputted by the summer 68 are connected via line 78 also to the radio transmitter The signal outputted by the band-pass filter 66 is the instructional signal which is to be transmitted via either the transmitter 72 or 74 to a remote receiving station.
The signal outputted by the microphone 56 is the audio signal component of the signals transmitted in the television channel via the transmitter 74, and is also transmitted via the radio transmitter 72 to the remote receiving stations when a radio transmission of the audio portion of the activity in the studio 14 is desired.
The simmer 68 performs the function of combining the instructional signal with the audio signal whereby the instructional signal shares a small fraction of the audio spectrum as shown in FIG.
This is accomplished by adding the output signals of the microphone 56 and the filter 66 to output the sum signal on line The combiner 70 functions, in a well-known fashion, to combine the video portion of the television channel signal from the camera 54 with either the microphone signal on line 80 or the composite signal of the summer 68 depending on the position of the switch In the event that the simulcast of both the radio and the television transmissions is to be provided by the transmitter 72 and 74, the switch 76 connects the combiner 70 to line 80 in which case the television signal transmitted by the transmitter 74 has the standard format of video and audio portions without the instructional signal, the latter being transmitted via the radio transmitter In the event that the switch 76 is connected to line 78, then the television signal transmitted by the transmitter 74 includes the instructional signal within the audio portion of the television signal.
The circuitry of FIG. If all of the receiving stations have the form of the station 16, then the switch 76 may be placed in the position for connection of the line 80 to the combiner 70, in which case the transmitter 74 transmits a normal television signal while the instructional signal is transmitted by the transmitter In the event that all of the receiving stations are in the form of the station 18 then the switch 76 connects a line 78 to the combiner 70 for providing a modified form of the transmitted television signal wherein the instructional signal is included within the television signal.
In such case, the radio transmitter 72 is not used by the invention, but may, nevertheless, transmit a radio program to remote radios which do not form a part of the system of the invention.
The television system 28 comprises a receiver 82, a demodulator 84, and a speaker The separation circuitry 30 comprises a narrow-band filter 88 and a demodulator The passband of the filter 88 is equal to the bandwidth of the instructional signal shown in FIG.
In the operation of the receiving station 16, the receiver 40 functions in the manner of a well-known radio receiver for receiving the radio transmission incident upon the antenna In addition, the receiver 40 includes a narrow-band filter 92 having a passband equal to that of the filter Thereby, the filter 92 extracts from the audio spectrum the portion of the spectrum, shown in FIG.
The signal outputted by the filter 92 is demodulated by the demodulator to recover the digitally formatted signal produced by the encoder 60, which digitally formatted signal is applied to the response unit for providing instruction thereto.
The television set 38 in the receiving station 16, as noted hereinabove, functions in accordance with the well-known form of television set outputting both audio and video signals, the latter appearing on the screen In the operation of the receiving station 18, the receiver 82 includes a well-known television tuner not shown and outputs the television signal of the channel to which the receiver 82 is tuned.
The television signal outputted by the receiver 82 is demodulated in a well-known fashion by the demodulator 84 to provide a video signal which is presented on the television screen 20, and an audio signal which is presented by the speaker In accordance with a feature of the invention the demodulator 84 also applies an audio signal to the filter 88 of the separation circuitry The filter 88 extracts the portion of the audio spectrum designated for the instructional signal, as does the filter 92, and outputs the instructional signal to the demodulator The demodulator 90 operates, as does the demodulator 42 to recover the digitally formatted signal produced by the encoder 60, which digitally formatted signal is applied to the response unit 22 to provide instruction thereto.
Thereby, the response units 22 of the receiving stations 16 and 18 are able to function concurrently with the presentation of the broadcast television program upon the television screens As indicated in the drawing for the receiving station 18, a member of the normally remote audience 94 operates the keyboard 44 of the response unit 22 while listening to the speaker 86 and watching the television screen With reference to FIG.
It is to be understood that the circuitry of FIG. The response unit 22 comprises three decoders 96, 98, and , a register , a score counter , a memory for storing data, and a memory for storing an operating program, a timer , a gate , a buffer store , a comparator for comparing output signals of the store with the memory , a logic unit , and a clock , these components being in addition to the keyboard 44 and the dispenser 46 disclosed previously with reference to FIGS.
In operation, the memory stores data with respect to the answers which are to be provided by the viewing audience. For example, in the event that the viewing audience is composed of children in a children's show wherein children are learning to identify colors, the host may point successively to a red hat, a blue table, and a green car and request to know the colors of the respective objects.
In such case, the memory would store response criteria, in this instance, the words red, blue, and green in the sequence corresponding to the order in which the objects are to be addressed by the host.
The keys on the keyboard 44 may be similarly colored to enable entry of the correct response. Alternatively, for older children, the keyboard may be an alphanumeric keyboard, as is found on a typewriter, in which case the viewing audience is to type the words corresponding to the colors addressed by the host.
In this case, the comparator would compare the spelling of the words entered via the keyboard 44 with the spelling of the colors stored in the memory The buffer store stores the responses entered via the keyboard 44 to enable the comparator to compare the response with the data stored in the memory The method and system of the invention lend themselves particularly well to educational shows for children.
Questions pertaining to educational toys, to books, to stories and to subjects being taught or addressed, are interspersed in the show.
Children are rewarded with tokens or other forms of award, such as coupons redeemable at candy stores, ice cream parlors, and the like. The score counter operates under command from the program memory to score each correct response signal outputted by the comparator When the response entered at the keyboard 44 agrees with the data stored in the memory , the comparator outputs a logic-1 signal via gate to the counter The output signal of the comparator serves as an enable signal to initiate a count by the counter The counter increments its count by 1, 2, 3, or other amount depending on the magnitude of the score to be awarded for the correct response.
In the event that the response is to be timed in the sense that a limited time is available for the response, then the timer is activated by the program memory to render the gate in a state of conduction of signals of the comparator only during the interval of time when the response is permitted.
Both before and after this interval of time, the timer places the gate in a state of nonconduction so that a response entered at the keyboard 44 outside of the desired response interval, or "window", cannot enable the counter to increment or modify the score.
The output count, score, or evaluation of the counter is applied to the dispenser 46 which includes a recording medium, such as the card 48, for providing a permanent record of the score.
The dispenser 46 includes suitable magnetic recording heads not shown for recording information on the card 48 in a well-known fashion.
In addition, if desired, the dispenser 46 may include well-known encryption circuitry for recording the score on the card 48 in a fashion which cannot be read except by an automatic card reader having circuitry for decrypting the recorded message.
The dispenser 46 is activated by the program memory to accomplish the foregoing recording of the score. While the score counting function is described herein for illustrative purposes, it should be understood that unit may be designed to perform the processing of data entered by respondents on keyboard 44 or other data entering device.
Included in such processing are, for instance, the computerized processing of data provided by respondents in accordance with one of several programs stored in memory and brought into play by the instructional or command signals transmitted by transmitters 72 or Questionnaires or forms used in market research may be stored in dispenser 46 or may be placed into it by respondents.
Following a set of questions, or upon the completion of the broadcast, processed or unprocessed data are issued by dispenser 46 in the form of hard copy taking the form of one of the embodiments described.
If desired, the actual response entered at the keyboard 44, such as the words red, blue, and green of the foregoing example, may be recorded by the dispenser For this purpose, the responses are coupled from the buffer store to a register wherein the responses are stored prior to recording at the dispenser After all of the responses have been stored in the register , the program memory strobes the register to pass the data of the responses into the dispenser 46 for recordation upon the card 48 or such other form of storage media as may be employed.